UN’AZIENDA CHE PROSEGUE LEGANDO IL PRESENTE AI RACCONTI E ALLE MAGIE DEL TERRITORIO

Una cantina che si sviluppa su un’area coperta di oltre 8.000 mq. Losito e Guarini è la casa vinicola diventata la prima azienda di settore dell’Oltrepo’ Pavese e una delle più importanti produttrici di vini della regione Puglia.

Glossario EN

HomeGlossario EN
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Acid Chart Determination of the quantity of organic acids contained in wine (tartaric, malic, citric, acetic, succinic, lactic).
A
Acidification Operation through which acid substances are added to wine
A
Acidity It indicates the total quantity of organic acids that give the wine its sent / taste of freshness and vivacity.
A
Aftertaste The taste left on the palate after the wine has been swallowed.
A
Aging Oenological practice following refining that involves a more or less long period in the bottle.
A
Alcohol (ethyl) After water, it is one of the main ingredients in wine. It comes from the fermentation of sugar by yeasts.
A
Alcohol (superior) Compounds that are created during the alcoholic fermentation. The most important, for organoleptic purposes, is glycerine.
A
Alcohol content Quantity of ethyl alcohol shown on the label and expressed in % Vol.
A
Alcoholic fermentation Process in which sugars from grape must are converted into ethyl alcohol by the yeasts.
A
Antioxidants Antioxidants are chemical elements (molecules, ions, radicals) or chemical agents, that slow down or prevent the oxidization of other substances, like for example sorbic acid (vitamin C, sulphur dioxide, etc.)
A
Aphrometery Measurement, with special manometers, of the pressure of sparkling wines.
A
Aromatic Wine in which the predominant element are the scents characteristic of the vine it derives from (typical aromatic vines are Moscato, Malvasia, Traminer, Muller Thrugau and Sauvignon).
A
Assemblage Mixture of wines from different batches and / or vintages and / or origins and / or varieties in order to obtain a more complex and harmonious wine.
A
Astringency Gustatory sensation given by tannins
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Balanced Wine where the major components (acidity and smoothness for white wines, acidity, smoothness and tannins for red wines) coexist in harmony.
B
Barrel Irregularly-shaped, cylindrical container made of curved wooden staves bound by metal hoops.
B
Barrique Small oak barrel that can contain 225 litres
B
Bitter It is one of the four fundamentals of the organoleptic analysis. It is pleasant only if well integrated with the other components of wine.
B
Blend See “assemblage”.
B
Body Wine structure and texture resulting from a rich variety of extracts.
B
Botrytized A wine produced from grapes with “noble rot”, causing the grape to dehydrate (thereby giving high sugar concentration) and the formation of particular aromas.
B
Bouquet A combination of perfumes that a wine acquires during the refining process.
B
Brut It indicates a sparkling wine almost free from residual sugar.
B
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Cage Containment device for the mushroom cork of sparkling wines that is made up of wire
C
Capsule Sort of metal or plastic cap protecting the cork.
C
Citric Acid Acid that comes for the grape and that gives a sensation of acid freshness that recalls a lemon. If excessive it can cause an increase in salivation and a sour and mordant taste; used as an adjective it symbolizes a non-balanced wine which, due to the excessive acidity, has a very strong taste and nose that recall the acidity of lemons.
C
Clarification Wine processing that is necessary to obtain a clear and clean product: to the wine a colloidal compound is added that contrasts the substance that in the wine causes cloudiness. The two substances (the one in the wine and the one that is added), being polar opposite, attract each other, unite and fall to the bottom. The deposit is separated from the wine through racking and filtration.
C
Colour Visual element of the wine. It is the compendium of intensity and shade.
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Complexity Typical characteristic of prestigious wines with a great variety of flavors and fragrances.
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Coriaceous Wine with highly concentrated tannins and that has reminder of the skin of the grape from which polyphenols are extracted.
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Cru A French term designating a small territory or a given vineyard which, because of its specific pedoclimate, produces exceptional grapes.
C
Cut See “Assemblage”
C
Cuvée Indica un vino ancora troppo giovane per essere bevuto oppure troppo acido e disarmonico.
C
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D.O.C. Controlled Designation of Origin. It is a geographical indication mentioned on the label of wines meeting specific requirements set by the relevant production specifications and the national and Community legislation.
D
D.O.C.G. Controlled Designation of Origin Guaranteed. In the Italian ranking of wines it represents the highest quality level.
D
Decantation Process of pouring the wine from the bottle into the decanter to oxygenate it and separate clear wine from the sediment present in the bottle.
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Decanter English term designating a carafe. It is used to indicate the glass or crystal vessel used to decant aged wines. Its wide shape allows the wine to better oxygenate than in a standard carafe.
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Degustation Thoughtful tasting during which the visual, olfactory and gustatory characteristics are evaluated.
D
Draining Separation of must from solid waste. A process generally performed by a machine equipped with a drilled wall large rotating cylinder.
D
Dreggy Wine which has the characteristic flavor and smell of the dregs with which it remained in contact for a long time.
D
Dry It is a wine without residual sugar that gives the sensation of a clean mouth
D
Dry extract It represents the set of solid substances that are present in the wine and that may be found after the evaporation of water and alcohol. A higher quantity of these substances determines a higher sensation of fullness in the wine.
D
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Ebullioscope Instrument used for measuring the alcohol content by ebullioscopy, a widely diffused method based on the different boiling point of water (100 °C) and ethanol (78.3°C) which together create a mixture whose boiling point is in between those of the two substances. Wine is a mixture of water and alcohol and its boiling point decreases with the increase in the content of ethyl alcohol.
E
Elevage This is the refining in wood to give the wine a “heightened” quality characteristic.
E
Enrichment Operation through which sugars are added to the must in order to obtain a wine higher in alcohol content
E
Etheral Wine with an inebriating and intense perfume reminiscent of the characteristic smell of paint solvents.
E
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Fat Wine with a good structure in which a pasty sensation, given by glycerol prevails.
F
Feeble Wine lacking flavor when tasted.
F
Filtration Clarification process consisting in filtering wine to eliminate suspended solid impurities
F
Flabby Wine lacking acidity, cloying
F
Floral Perfume with prevailing hints of flowers.
F
Fluidity Density of the wine noted simply by a visual inspection.
F
Freshness Pleasantly lively sensation on the palate due to a good level of acidity.
F
Frizzante A wine containing quite a reasonable amount of carbon dioxide.
F
Fruity Perfume with prevailing hints of more or less ripe fruit.
F
Full Wine with a good body and harmony on the palate.
F
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Glycerol Substance produced by yeasts during fermentation. It gives a pleasant smoothness and structure to the wine.
G
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Hard Wine which has too much acidity and tannins.
H
Harmony When the olfactory and gustatory sensations combine together to give a general sensation that is balanced and full
H
Herbaceous Perfume where vegetal hints prevail (e.g. Cabernet frane, Sauvignon).
H
Humus A nauseating odor reminding decaying vegetation indicating that the wine is altered.
H
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I.G.T. Typical Geographical Indication, better known with the acronym IGT, is an origin designation to recognize the table wines produced in specific regions or geographical areas according to generic production requirements (authorized by law); besides indicating their color their labels may also show the vine varieties used and the vintage.
I
Intensity Term designating the “quantity” of a given sensation, whether it is visual, on the nose, on the palate or the aftertaste.
I
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Lean Wine that lacks body when tasted.
L
Light Wine with low alcohol content.
L
Lingering It expresses the duration of a sensation, be that olfactory or gustatory.
L
Liqueur wine Wine resembling a liqueur for its alcohol content, structure and sweetness. Alcohol shall be added to it and it shall however exceed 15% abv.
L
Long Wine that leaves persistent and prolonged flavors and aromas once swallowed.
L
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Maderized A clearly oxidized wine which sometimes isn’t a flaw but a typical characteristic
M
Malic Acid Acid that comes from the grape and that gives fragrant sensation that enhances the fruity taste. If excessive it can cause a sour and unripen taste
M
Malolactic fermentation Process in which lactic bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid, which generally occurs after the alcoholic fermentation. A crucial step in the production of all red wines and some white wines to balance acidity and obtain a richer and more rounded taste
M
Mellow wine with a clear sweet flavor which doesn’t prevail over the other nuances.
M
Must Juice obtained from grape pressing and used for alcoholic fermentation.
M
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Non-aromatic wine Wine lacking character almost always because of low overall acidity. Wine with poorly marked sensory characteristics, with attenuated and not very intense flavors and aromas. This flaw is often tied to poor extractive weight of the wine.
N
Nouveau Special light and fruity red wine, available in November after harvesting and to be consumed relatively soon.
N
Nuance French term designating a hint, barely detectable presence of an aroma.
N
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Organoleptic It designates the qualities and characteristics of a wine, such as color, aroma, and taste, perceived and appreciated by the sensory system during the tasting; synonym of sensory.
O
Oxidation Gradual natural degenerative process of the taste and aromatic properties of the wine components
O
Oxidized Wine spoiled by a prolonged contact with air.
O
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Pairing Search of the perfect balance between the sensations tied to food and wine
P
Passito Wine obtained from dried grapes
P
Penetrating Wine with a particularly continuous aroma, dense and sharp
P
Perlage French term designating the effervescence of sparkling and semi-sparkling wines.
P
Perlage Termine con il quale si indica l’effervescenza dei vini spumanti e frizzanti.
P
pH Term of measure for perceived or real acidity. 3-3.5 pH in a wine indicates a moderate organoleptic acidity and therefore a well-balanced taste.
P
Polyphenols Vast family of compounds present in the grapes and wines responsible for the color, body and astringency sensation.
P
Pomace The solid remains of fresh fermented grapes after pressing. Often used in distilleries to produce alcohol.
P
Pumping over It consists in emptying fermenting must from the bottom of a tank and then pumping it to the top of the tank. This vinification technique increases the extraction of substances from the skins. If must is excessively pumped over, wine may lack balance due to an excess of tannins.
P
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Quality The whole of fine characteristics of a wine.
Q
QWPSR Quality Wine Produced in Specific Regions. In the European Community regulations it indicates all D.O.C and D.O.C.G. wines.
Q
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Racking Process to draw the lees off the wine
R
Raw It indicates a wine that is too young to be drunk or too acid and discordant
R
Refining Practice through which, with a rest period in oak barrels or in bottles, the wines matures and obtains harmony and complexity.
R
Residual sugar This term designates the unfermented sugar remaining in the wine because it hasn’t been converted into alcohol.
R
Rim The outer edge of wine in a glass.
R
Robust Vigorous and full-bodied wine with a significant alcohol content.
R
Round Full and smooth wine due to its moderate acidity and balanced sugar content.
R
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Salty Flavor given by the mineral salts and organic acids in the wine.
S
Sapidity See “salty”.
S
Sec See “dry”.
S
Semi-sweet Wine whose sweet taste is clearly recognizable due to fairly good presence of sugar
S
Short Wine lacking a persistent taste.
S
Smoothness Sensation on the palate created by the sugar, alcohol and glycerol
S
Sour Unpleasant gustatory sensation due to excessive acidity
S
Sparkling wine Wine with a discrete amount of carbon dioxide, bottled and sealed with a mushroom cork and wire.
S
Spicy Perfume with prevailing hints of spices (pepper, cinnamon, coffee, cocoa etc.).
S
Stabilization Oenological practice prior to bottling, in order to eliminate every possibility of chemical-physical and/or biological alterations in the wine.
S
Still Wine without effervescence.
S
Straw-yellow White wine with a straw-yellow colour
S
Structure See “body”.
S
Subzone See “cru”.
S
Sugaring Addition to the must or wine of sucrose; in Italy this practice is allowed only for the production of sparkling wines and it is forbidden for normal wines for economic policies reasons.
S
Sugars Important constituent elements of wine, necessary to soften the acidic component and being a part, together with alcohol and glycerol, of the smoothness which is essential in the balance parameters.
S
Sulfites Sulfites are compounds which occur naturally in wine as they are produced by alcoholic fermentation. Sulfites are commonly added as SO2 (sulfur dioxide) to preserve wine in several stages of winemaking. In general, white wines contain more sulfites than red wines; sweet white wines contain the greatest percentage of sulfites.
S
Sulfury Flavor or aroma representing a serious and irreversible wine flaw which increases in intensity after bottling.
S
Sweet Wine in which the presence of sugar is clearly distinguished and stands out above all the other flavors.
S
Sweetish Wine with a slight sweet flavour
S
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Tannins Polyphenols responsible for astringency.
T
Taste The results of the sensations perceived by the tongue (acidic, bitter, salty, and sweet).
T
Terroir French term indicating the interaction among vine, microclimate, and soil. The effect of this relationship on the grapes and thereby on the wine determines the uniqueness of the “cru”.
T
Tonality Element of the visual inspection, which together with the intensity defines the color of a wine.
T
Typicality Characteristic that makes a wine recognizable with reference to a vine or origin of the grapes.
T
Typology Wine classification in the community and national standards (e.g. Novello, Frizzante, Spumante, Tranquillo, Passito, Liquoroso, etc.)
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Unripe Wine with an excessive acid sensation
U
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Variety Type of vine obtained through genetic selection, whereby the grapes produced have well-defined and recognizable characteristics.
V
Velvety Wine which has a pleasant round flavor on the palate. This depends on the quantity of glycerol and type of tannins present.
V
Vine See “Variety
V
Vinification Vinification is the biochemical process to transform grapes into wine and its refining. The grape skins hold some yeasts that convert the sugar in the grapes into alcohol: this process is called alcoholic fermentation

There are several types of vinification:

·              off-the-skins (white or red grapes)

 

·              on the skins (with maceration)

 

·              with carbonic maceration

 

·              warm (or thermovinification)

 

·              continuous

 

·              reductive

 

·              rosé wine

V
Vinous Typical of young wines that are well structured and have a high alcohol volume where the smell of freshly fermented most is present.
V
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Warm Wine in which, the high alcohol content, produces a warm sensation in the mouth
W
Weak Wine that is lacking in some component
W
Wide Wine with rich and complex odorous nuances.
W
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Yeast Single-cell microorganism responsible for the alcoholic fermentation.
Y