Una cantina che si sviluppa su un’area coperta di oltre 8.000 mq. Losito e Guarini è la casa vinicola diventata la prima azienda di settore dell’Oltrepo’ Pavese e una delle più importanti produttrici di vini della regione Puglia.

Glossario EN

HomeGlossario EN
Pairing Search of the perfect balance between the sensations tied to food and wine P
Sweetish Wine with a slight sweet flavour S
Unripe Wine with an excessive acid sensation U
Citric Acid Acid that comes for the grape and that gives a sensation of acid freshness that recalls a lemon. If excessive it can cause an increase in salivation and a sour and mordant taste; used as an adjective it symbolizes a non-balanced wine which, due to the excessive acidity, has a very strong taste and nose that recall the acidity of lemons. C
Malic Acid Acid that comes from the grape and that gives fragrant sensation that enhances the fruity taste. If excessive it can cause a sour and unripen taste M
Acidity It indicates the total quantity of organic acids that give the wine its sent / taste of freshness and vivacity. A
Acidification Operation through which acid substances are added to wine A
Refining Practice through which, with a rest period in oak barrels or in bottles, the wines matures and obtains harmony and complexity. R
Aphrometery Measurement, with special manometers, of the pressure of sparkling wines. A
Alcohol (ethyl) After water, it is one of the main ingredients in wine. It comes from the fermentation of sugar by yeasts. A
Alcohol (superior) Compounds that are created during the alcoholic fermentation. The most important, for organoleptic purposes, is glycerine. A
Semi-sweet Wine whose sweet taste is clearly recognizable due to fairly good presence of sugar S
Bitter It is one of the four fundamentals of the organoleptic analysis. It is pleasant only if well integrated with the other components of wine. S
Wide Wine with rich and complex odorous nuances. W
Antioxidants Antioxidants are chemical elements (molecules, ions, radicals) or chemical agents, that slow down or prevent the oxidization of other substances, like for example sorbic acid (vitamin C, sulphur dioxide, etc.) A
Aromatic Wine in which the predominant element are the scents characteristic of the vine it derives from (typical aromatic vines are Moscato, Malvasia, Traminer, Muller Thrugau and Sauvignon). A
Harmony When the olfactory and gustatory sensations combine together to give a general sensation that is balanced and full H
Enrichment Operation through which sugars are added to the must in order to obtain a wine higher in alcohol content E
Dry It is a wine without residual sugar that gives the sensation of a clean mouth D
Sour Unpleasant gustatory sensation due to excessive acidity S
Assemblage Mixture of wines from different batches and / or vintages and / or origins and / or varieties in order to obtain a more complex and harmonious wine. A
Astringency Gustatory sensation given by tannins A
Barrique Small oak barrel that can contain 225 litres B
Balanced Wine where the major components (acidity and smoothness for white wines, acidity, smoothness and tannins for red wines) coexist in harmony. B
Botrytized A wine produced from grapes with “noble rot”, causing the grape to dehydrate (thereby giving high sugar concentration) and the formation of particular aromas. B
Barrel Irregularly-shaped, cylindrical container made of curved wooden staves bound by metal hoops. B
Bouquet A combination of perfumes that a wine acquires during the refining process. B
Brut It indicates a sparkling wine almost free from residual sugar. B
Warm Wine in which, the high alcohol content, produces a warm sensation in the mouth W
Capsule Sort of metal or plastic cap protecting the cork. C
Clarification Wine processing that is necessary to obtain a clear and clean product: to the wine a colloidal compound is added that contrasts the substance that in the wine causes cloudiness. The two substances (the one in the wine and the one that is added), being polar opposite, attract each other, unite and fall to the bottom. The deposit is separated from the wine through racking and filtration. C
Colour Visual element of the wine. It is the compendium of intensity and shade. C
Coriaceous Wine with highly concentrated tannins and that has reminder of the skin of the grape from which polyphenols are extracted. C
Complexity Typical characteristic of prestigious wines with a great variety of flavors and fragrances. C
Body Wine structure and texture resulting from a rich variety of extracts. B
Short Wine lacking a persistent taste. S
Cru A French term designating a small territory or a given vineyard which, because of its specific pedoclimate, produces exceptional grapes. C
Raw It indicates a wine that is too young to be drunk or too acid and discordant R
Cuvée French term designating the assemblage. C
Weak Wine that is lacking in some component W
Decantation Process of pouring the wine from the bottle into the decanter to oxygenate it and separate clear wine from the sediment present in the bottle. D
Decanter English term designating a carafe. It is used to indicate the glass or crystal vessel used to decant aged wines. Its wide shape allows the wine to better oxygenate than in a standard carafe. D
Degustation Thoughtful tasting during which the visual, olfactory and gustatory characteristics are evaluated D
D.O.C. Controlled Designation of Origin. It is a geographical indication mentioned on the label of wines meeting specific requirements set by the relevant production specifications and the national and Community legislation. D
D.O.C.G. Controlled Designation of Origin Guaranteed. In the Italian ranking of wines it represents the highest quality level. D
Sweet Wine in which the presence of sugar is clearly distinguished and stands out above all the other flavors. S
Hard Wine which has too much acidity and tannins. H
Ebullioscope Instrument used for measuring the alcohol content by ebullioscopy, a widely diffused method based on the different boiling point of water (100 °C) and ethanol (78.3°C) which together create a mixture whose boiling point is in between those of the two substances. Wine is a mixture of water and alcohol and its boiling point decreases with the increase in the content of ethyl alcohol. E
Elevage This is the refining in wood to give the wine a “heightened” quality characteristic. E
Balanced Wine where the major components (acidity and smoothness for white wines, acidity, smoothness and tannins for red wines) coexist in harmony. B
Herbaceous Perfume where vegetal hints prevail (e.g. Cabernet frane, Sauvignon). H
Dry extract It represents the set of solid substances that are present in the wine and that may be found after the evaporation of water and alcohol. A higher quantity of these substances determines a higher sensation of fullness in the wine. D
Etheral Wine with an inebriating and intense perfume reminiscent of the characteristic smell of paint solvents. E
Dreggy Wine which has the characteristic flavor and smell of the dregs with which it remained in contact for a long time. D
Alcoholic fermentation Process in which sugars from grape must are converted into ethyl alcohol by the yeasts. A
Malolactic fermentation Process in which lactic bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid, which generally occurs after the alcoholic fermentation. A crucial step in the production of all red wines and some white wines to balance acidity and obtain a richer and more rounded taste M
Filtration Clarification process consisting in filtering wine to eliminate suspended solid impurities F
Floral Perfume with prevailing hints of flowers. F
Fluidity Density of the wine noted simply by a visual inspection. F
Freshness Pleasantly lively sensation on the palate due to a good level of acidity. F
Frizzante A wine containing quite a reasonable amount of carbon dioxide. F
Fruity Perfume with prevailing hints of more or less ripe fruit. F
Feeble Wine lacking flavor when tasted. F
Cage Containment device for the mushroom cork of sparkling wines that is made up of wire C
Glycerol Substance produced by yeasts during fermentation. It gives a pleasant smoothness and structure to the wine. G
Alcohol content Quantity of ethyl alcohol shown on the label and expressed in % Vol. A
Fat Wine with a good structure in which a pasty sensation, given by glycerol prevails. F
Taste The results of the sensations perceived by the tongue (acidic, bitter, salty, and sweet). T
Humus A nauseating odor reminding decaying vegetation indicating that the wine is altered. H
I.G.T. Typical Geographical Indication, better known with the acronym IGT, is an origin designation to recognize the table wines produced in specific regions or geographical areas according to generic production requirements (authorized by law); besides indicating their color their labels may also show the vine varieties used and the vintage. I
Intensity Term designating the “quantity” of a given sensation, whether it is visual, on the nose, on the palate or the aftertaste. I
Aging Oenological practice following refining that involves a more or less long period in the bottle. A
Yeast Single-cell microorganism responsible for the alcoholic fermentation. Y
Liqueur wine Wine resembling a liqueur for its alcohol content, structure and sweetness. Alcohol shall be added to it and it shall however exceed 15% abv. L
Light Wine with low alcohol content. L
Long Wine that leaves persistent and prolonged flavors and aromas once swallowed. L
Maderized A clearly oxidized wine which sometimes isn’t a flaw but a typical characteristic M
Lean Wine that lacks body when tasted. L
Flabby Wine lacking acidity, cloying F
Smoothness Sensation on the palate created by the sugar, alcohol and glycerol S
Must Juice obtained from grape pressing and used for alcoholic fermentation. M
Non-aromatic wine Wine lacking character almost always because of low overall acidity. Wine with poorly marked sensory characteristics, with attenuated and not very intense flavors and aromas. This flaw is often tied to poor extractive weight of the wine. N
Nouveau Special light and fruity red wine, available in November after harvesting and to be consumed relatively soon. N
Nuance French term designating a hint, barely detectable presence of an aroma. N
Organoleptic It designates the qualities and characteristics of a wine, such as color, aroma, and taste, perceived and appreciated by the sensory system during the tasting; synonym of sensory. O
Oxidized Wine spoiled by a prolonged contact with air. O
Oxidation Gradual natural degenerative process of the taste and aromatic properties of the wine components O
Straw-yellow White wine with a straw-yellow colour S
Passito Wine obtained from dried grapes P
Mellow wine with a clear sweet flavor which doesn’t prevail over the other nuances. M
Penetrating Wine with a particularly continuous aroma, dense and sharp P
Perlage French term designating the effervescence of sparkling and semi-sparkling wines. P
Lingering It expresses the duration of a sensation, be that olfactory or gustatory. L
pH Term of measure for perceived or real acidity. 3-3.5 pH in a wine indicates a moderate organoleptic acidity and therefore a well-balanced taste. P
Full Wine with a good body and harmony on the palate. F
Polyphenols Vast family of compounds present in the grapes and wines responsible for the color, body and astringency sensation. P
Quality The whole of fine characteristics of a wine. Q
Acid chart Determination of the quantity of organic acids contained in wine (tartaric, malic, citric, acetic, succinic, lactic). A
Residual sugar This term designates the unfermented sugar remaining in the wine because it hasn’t been converted into alcohol. R
Aftertaste The taste left on the palate after the wine has been swallowed. A
Pumping over It consists in emptying fermenting must from the bottom of a tank and then pumping it to the top of the tank. This vinification technique increases the extraction of substances from the skins. If must is excessively pumped over, wine may lack balance due to an excess of tannins. P
Robust Vigorous and full-bodied wine with a significant alcohol content. R
Round Full and smooth wine due to its moderate acidity and balanced sugar content. R
Salty Flavor given by the mineral salts and organic acids in the wine. S
Sapidity See “salty”. S
Sec See “dry”. S
Draining Separation of must from solid waste. A process generally performed by a machine equipped with a drilled wall large rotating cylinder. D
Sulfites Sulfites are compounds which occur naturally in wine as they are produced by alcoholic fermentation. Sulfites are commonly added as SO2 (sulfur dioxide) to preserve wine in several stages of winemaking. In general, white wines contain more sulfites than red wines; sweet white wines contain the greatest percentage of sulfites. S
Subzone See “cru”. S
Spicy Perfume with prevailing hints of spices (pepper, cinnamon, coffee, cocoa etc.). S
Sparkling wine Wine with a discrete amount of carbon dioxide, bottled and sealed with a mushroom cork and wire. S
Stabilization Oenological practice prior to bottling, in order to eliminate every possibility of chemical-physical and/or biological alterations in the wine. S
Structure See “body”. S
Sulfury Flavor or aroma representing a serious and irreversible wine flaw which increases in intensity after bottling. S
Racking Process to draw the lees off the wine R
Cut See “Assemblage” C
Tannins Polyphenols responsible for astringency. T
Terroir French term indicating the interaction among vine, microclimate, and soil. The effect of this relationship on the grapes and thereby on the wine determines the uniqueness of the “cru”. T
Typicality Characteristic that makes a wine recognizable with reference to a vine or origin of the grapes. T
Typology Wine classification in the community and national standards (e.g. Novello, Frizzante, Spumante, Tranquillo, Passito, Liquoroso, etc.) T
Tonality Element of the visual inspection, which together with the intensity defines the color of a wine. T
Still Wine without effervescence. S
Rim The outer edge of wine in a glass. R
Blend See “assemblage”. B
Variety Type of vine obtained through genetic selection, whereby the grapes produced have well-defined and recognizable characteristics. V
Velvety Wine which has a pleasant round flavor on the palate. This depends on the quantity of glycerol and type of tannins present. V
Pomace The solid remains of fresh fermented grapes after pressing. Often used in distilleries to produce alcohol. P
Vinification Vinification is the biochemical process to transform grapes into wine and its refining. The grape skins hold some yeasts that convert the sugar in the grapes into alcohol: this process is called alcoholic fermentation

There are several types of vinification:

·              off-the-skins (white or red grapes)


·              on the skins (with maceration)


·              with carbonic maceration


·              warm (or thermovinification)


·              continuous


·              reductive


·              rosé wine


Vinous Typical of young wines that are well structured and have a high alcohol volume where the smell of freshly fermented most is present. V
Vine See “Variety V
QWPSR Quality Wine Produced in Specific Regions. In the European Community regulations it indicates all D.O.C and D.O.C.G. wines. Q
Sugars Important constituent elements of wine, necessary to soften the acidic component and being a part, together with alcohol and glycerol, of the smoothness which is essential in the balance parameters. S
Sugaring Addition to the must or wine of sucrose; in Italy this practice is allowed only for the production of sparkling wines and it is forbidden for normal wines for economic policies reasons. S